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The Primary ( ) and Final () FRCA examinations require an extensive knowledge of temperature. We have therefore written a new educational resource section on this subject. The tutorials have been tailored to the FRCA syllabus and we have also added some past questions relevant to these topics.

Read other sections by using the navigation bar on the right side of every page. 

 Primary FRCA Syllabus

Physiology and Biochemistry

 Body temperature and its regulation.. 


  Measurement of temperature... 

Q. Primary Viva Question

What methods do you know for assessing temperature? How does a thermocouple work? How does the resistance of thermistors/platinum resistance wires change with temperature? You are shown photographs of a mercury thermometer, nasopharyngeal probe and a tympanic thermometer; what physical principles do these instruments work on?


 Final FRCA Syllabus

Clinical Measurement

 The Final examination assumes knowledge of the Primary FRCA examination syllabus, with the addition of more sophisticated measurements. There is an emphasis on clinical applications of clinical measurement, such as indications, practical techniques and interpretation of acquired data. Candidates will be expected to understand the sources of error and the limitations of individual measurements...

Q. Short Answer Question 20th May 2003

How may unintended perioperative hypothermia harm patients?

Q. Final Viva Question

Can you describe the Seebeck effect and its application to anaesthesia?


Temperature is the thermal state of a substance which determines whether it will give heat to another substance or receive heat from it.

Heat is a form of energy associated with movement of molecules and atoms: it moves from one site to another owing to a temperature difference between them

Temperature articles

Temperature scales
Temperature measurement: non-electrical techniques
Temperature measurement: electrical techniques
Clinical use
Physiology of temperature
Normal thermoregulation
Mechanisms to preserve and increase heat
Mechanisms to decrease heat and allow dissipation
Approximate contribution to heat loss
Temperature measurement sites
Patterns of hypothermia following general anaesthesia
Patterns of hypothermia following regional anaesthesia
Cardiopulmonary bypass
Prevention of perioperative hypothermia
NICE Perioperative Hypothermia Guidelines


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