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ECG interpretation

The Primary ( ) and Final () FRCA examinations require an extensive knowledge of the electrocardiogram. We have therefore written a new educational resource section on the subject of the ECG. The tutorials have been tailored to the FRCA syllabus and we have also added some past questions relevant to these topics.

 Primary FRCA Syllabus

Preoperative assessment

Interpretation of relevant preoperative investigations, plasma electrolytes, haematology, disturbances of acid/base status, ECG, X-rays, pulmonary function tests and clotting abnormalities …

Q. Primary Viva Question

Please tell me all you know about Einthoven's triangle?


 Final FRCA Syllabus


 Abnormal electrocardiogram and arrhythmias…

Intensive Care Medicine

 Haematological disorders to include coagulopathies… 


Q. Final Viva Question

Describe how you calculate the axis from this ECG.


The normal ECG and the 12-lead system
The 12-lead system
Electrophysiology of the heart
A systematic approach to ECG interpretation
Conduction abnormalities
Supraventricular arrhythmias
Junctional arrhythmias
Ventricular arrhythmias
Ischaemic heart disease
Ventricular pre-excitation: WPW and LGL syndromes
Effects of drugs on the ECG
Electrolyte disturbances and ECG changes
Medical conditions associated with ECG changes

This resource has been written by Dr Karthik Sabapathi DA FRCA.

We would also like to thank Frank G. Yanowitz, M.D, Professor of Medicine, University of Utah School of Medicine for his kind permission to use his ECG images as part of this resource.


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